Major nutrients like vitamins A and D, calcium, and phosphorus, are not the end of the osteoporosis horizon. Studies suggest a role for minor nutrients and trace metals, including zinc, vitamin B12, folate, boron, silicon, manganese, zinc, and copper.69 In Soil, Grass, and Cancer, Andre Voisin wrote of cattle that grazed in the Everglades on copper-deficient soil. Despite sufficient calcium and phosphorus in the diet, these cattle developed rickets and osteomalacia, which was remedied by providing dietary copper.70 Likewise, Robert Becker described his own experiments in The Body Electric that suggested that copper is the glue holding the hydroxyapatite crystals – calcium and phosphorus salts – to the collagen matrix of bone.71
Bare Bones: Calcium and Natural Sources of Vitamin A, D & K2
Appropriate intake of calcium and vitamin D is crucial in the prevention and slowing of bone loss, but can be difficult to achieve on a daily basis. Careful planning and tracking are often necessary to ensure the individual is getting adequate amounts across all sources.
the effects of vitamin a toxicity on calcium and lipid ..
Currently, there are a number of prescription therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The antiresorptive medications are the largest group and include bisphosphonates (Actonel, Boniva, Fosamax, Reclast), selective estrogen receptor modulators (Evista), hormone therapy and calcitonin (Miacalcin). Teriparatide is a parathyroid hormone derivative that acts as an anabolic agent on bone and is indicated for post-menopausal women with osteoporosis who are at high risk of fracture (). A review of studies that led to the FDA approval of prescription medications used for the treatment of osteoporosis found that 80% of studies had been performed under conditions where a certain minimum calcium and vitamin D intake was ensured (). Therefore, one cannot conclude that these prescription medications would be as effective in calcium and vitamin D deficient patients. Unfortunately, calcium use during osteoporosis therapy is often under-utilized by patients and not appropriately counseled by physicians. In 1994, 43% of osteoporosis visits had some form of counseling for calcium. By 2000, this proportion had declined to 29% and fell to 23% by 2004 ().
Calcium and Vitamin D for Vegans: Summarized