BST2 (CD317, tetherin, HM1.24) is an interferon-inducible transmembrane protein which can directly inhibit the release of enveloped virus particles from infected cells, and its anti-viral activity is reported to be related to the specific topological arrangement of its four structural domains. The N-terminal cytoplasmic tail of feline BST2 (fBST2) is characterized by a shorter N-terminal region compared to those of other known homologs. In this study, we investigated the functional impact of modifying the cytoplasmic tail region of fBST2 and its molecular mechanism. The fBST2 protein with the addition of a peptide at the N-terminus retained anti-release activity against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 and pseudovirus based on feline immunodeficiency virus at a weaker level compared with the wild-type fBST2. However, the fBST2 protein with addition of a peptide internally in the ectodomain proximal to the GPI anchor still retained its anti-viral activity well. Notably, the N-glycosylation state and the cell surface level of the N-terminally modified variants were unlike those of the wild-type protein, while no difference was observed in their intracellular localizations. However, in contrast to human BST2, the wild-type fBST2 did not show the ability to activate NF-κB. Consistent with previous reports, our findings showed that adding a peptide in the cytoplasmic tail region of fBST2 may influence its anti-viral activity. The shorter N-terminal cytoplasmic region of fBST2 compared with human BST2 did not apparently affect its anti-viral activity, which is independent of its N-glycosylation and ability to activate NF-κB.
Hill's Feline i/d Chicken & Vegetable Stew (24 x 2.9 oz
When owners understand feline behavior and what their cats view as a healthy environment, families can achieve a more harmonious living situation.
Feline i/d Chicken & Vegetable Stew (24 x 2.9 oz
Because Dr. Carney limits her practice to cats, she offers a very specialized scope of services for treating feline behavior problems including aggression and eliminating outside of the litter box.
Feline ID (Pictures) Flashcards | Quizlet
Whether it's an engraved sterling silver disk from a fancy boutique or a make-it-yourself aluminum circle from a pet store, your cat's ID tag is more than feline jewelry. It's a vital safety net for keeping you and your companion together.It's a good idea to keep a spare collar and tag on hand. If your cat loses their collar and tag, you can immediately outfit them with a replacement set. This is a cheap way of ensuring that your feline friend will spend their life where they belong—with you!